The modern procedure of surrogate motherhood have appeared thanks to the development of assisted reproductive technologies(ART). Now couples who faced problems with fertility can finally find happiness of becoming a full family with children and have a genetic relationship with the child. Talking about types of surrogacy from a medical point of view there are two main types: traditional and gestational.
Using this kind of surrogacy, the genetic parents of the future child is the surrogate mother and the chid’s father. Fertilization is carried out naturally, with the help of IUI or IVF. In other words, a woman who agreed to carry and give birth to the child to an infertile couple acts as surrogate mother and egg donor.
Worldwide traditional surrogacy is the subject of legal and social disputes. In most countries, including Ukraine, this type of surrogate motherhood is prohibited by law and is equalization to child trafficking.
In this case, there is no genetic link between the surrogate mother and child . During the procedure of IVF the genetic material of both parents or one of them is used. Depending on the health state of the couple there are three variants of fertilization of the surrogate mother:
- IVF using the genetic material of both parents;
- IVF using the wife’s eggs and donor’s sperm;
- IVF using the husband’s sperm and donor’s eggs.
In any case, the parents of the child will be the couple, the biological material of which was used. According to Ukrainian legislation, the birth certificate of the child, which is given to parents, does not contain any information about the surrogate mother.
Types of surrogacy programs depending on the payment services for a surrogate mother
Commercial (paid) surrogacy involves payments for the services of a surrogate mother. This method is financially beneficial for both parties. The woman who carries and gives birth to a child receives financial compensation for her work, and the couple finally become parents. As a rule, the amount of financial compensation is in advance indicated in the contract. Unfortunately, this type of surrogacy is prohibited in many countries because of ethical and moral peculiarities.
Non-commercial (altruistic) surrogacy means that the surrogate mother is involved only in order to help infertile couples to become parents without financial benefit to herself. Most often, surrogate mothers who take part at non- commercial surrogacy become friends, close friends or relatives with the parents of the child. In this case, all surveys, tests, medications and other expenses associated with the pregnancy of a surrogate mother are paid by the parents.
No matter what type of surrogacy you wuold like to choose, it is very important to compose a contract with the surrogate mother and to take into account all the details of this procedure to protect yourselves and the unborn child.