Female fertility can be assessed by means of fertility tests (also known as fertility forecasts). As a matter of fact, there is nothing complicated about them. A woman has to do a US test of her ovaries on the 5th – 6th day of the cycle. In other words, just after the menstruation. During the US examination, a doctor measures the diameter of the ovaries, counts the amount of active, growing follicles and defines the ratio of hormonal and connective tissues. Five and more growing follicles, the diameter of 20-120 mm and the ratio of tissues no less than 1:1 are considered as a norm. According to the US results, the ovarian reserve is defined as “-2”, “0” and “+2”.
The “-2” ovarian reserve means very low, practically zero female fertility, when it is next to impossible to successfully get pregnant. The “0” ovarian reserve means average female fertility. In other words, a woman is quite capable of getting pregnant and bearing a child to term. The ovarian reserve of “+2” stands for perfect female fertility when a woman has 100% chances to conceive within 1 or 2 cycles and then give birth to a child without any difficulties.
Fertility testing also includes defining the levels of FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) in the blood. Their ratios influence the female ability to conceive, bear and give birth to a child. If the FSH prevails over the LH, the ovaries are exhausted and the fertility is low. This fertility forecast is viewed to be valid for 3-5 years, after which a woman’s fertility might be increased using various modern methods of ART. The results of fertility tests (fertility forecasts) allow gynecologists and endocrinologists to estimate the fertility factor of a woman.
Low fertility shouldn’t sound like a final verdict that means it is totally impossible to get pregnant. It still might be possible to have a baby after a long course of fertility treatment which increases the chances of successful pregnancy. Such kind of treatment helps nearly 95% of women to get pregnant, while the other 5% have to use the ART like IVF, ICSI or surrogacy.