mtDNA. What does it stand for?
Not long ago House of Commons of GB voted for the innovation of a new method of the struggle against the genetic diseases – special genetic operation while which material from one woman’s egg is transferred into the egg of another woman. Doctors claim that such an operation will allow to avoid the development of mitochondrial genetic diseases.
Their arguments are quite clear. Part of human DNA is situated in the nucleus of the cells, others – in mitochondrions (so-called mitochondrial DNA). mtDNA doesn’t influence person’s appearance but is responsible for the energy assimilation by the cells. In such a way, diseases connected with the defects of mtDNA might result in the wrong brain and muscles development, problems with heart and even blindness and are transferred maternally.
British genetic specialists suggest two kinds of trilateral fertilization: embryo and egg repair. In both cases, two kinds of eggs (defective patients’ eggs and healthy eggs of a donor) are required.
If we speak about embryo repair, defective eggs are fertilized with sperm cells and only then its pronucleuses are transferred into the donor’s egg.
In the case of egg repair, nucleus from the patient’s egg is transferred into the empty donor’s eggs and only then fertilization is conducted.
If House of Lords approve this law, Great Britain will be the first country in the world where trilateral fertilization is possible…. after the several years of clinical trials, of course.